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Research In Energy Psychology
 
There has been some research carried out in this new field and Dr Phil Mollon, psychologist and author has collated much of this research in his new book “EMDR and Energy Psychology, Psychoanalytic Perspectives”. Pub. Karnac London.

Research in energy psychology is relatively limited at present, although more studies are in preparation.

The study by Wells and colleagues (2003).

The best paper, reporting a controlled study of EFT, is that by Wells et al. (2003). Participants with phobias of small animals - such as spiders, rodents, or cockroaches – were randomly assigned to two groups. One group received a 30 minute treatment with EFT. The other received training in a procedure called diaphragmatic breathing, which has been shown to produce physiological changes consistent with deep-relaxation (Lehrer et al. 1999). Thus, the control group treatment did contain active ingredients likely to induce relaxation and therefore likely to facilitate desensitisation. Moreover, the deep-breathing condition was designed to parallel as closely as possible the EFT condition. Whilst the EFT group tapped on the meridian points, repeating the reminder phrase (e.g. “this fear of spiders”) at each point, the deep-breathing group were asked to repeat this phrase between each breath. Each emotional aspect of the problem was addressed with ‘rounds’ of deep-breathing, paralleling the rounds of meridian tapping with EFT. Levels of fear were assessed by taking SUDs at different stages of a Behavioural Approach Task (BAT). The BAT involved 8 points at progressively distances nearer to the feared animal. A further measure was how far the participant could tolerate approaching the animal on the BAT. Follow-up measures were taken 6 months or more later. The results were that the EFT treatment produced significantly greater improvement than did the deep-breathing condition, as measured behaviourally and on self-report measures. The improvement was found to be largely sustained at follow-up.

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The significance of this study is that it contained a control condition for comparison, and it was randomised – thus meeting the highest research standards. The choice of a control condition mimicked the procedure of EFT in all details except for [a] the use of a self-acceptance statement, and [b] tapping on the meridian points. Since deep-breathing does induce relaxation, the superiority of the EFT condition must be due to more than induction of an ordinary relaxation response.
 

Dr. Patricia Carrington reports on a series of studies planned or in progress, building upon this study, by one of the co-authors, Dr. Harvey Baker, and colleagues (www.eftupdate.com/ResearchonEFT.html): [1] a replication of the Wells et al. procedures, but using 2 different forms of control group – a form of non-directive counselling, and a no treatment group; [2] a controlled study in a clinical setting, comparing EFT with two control groups; [3] a comparison of EFT and a sham variant (no true acupoints being tapped) examining the effect on maths anxiety; [4] a study of the effect of EFT versus two control conditions on basket ball skill; [5] a study of the effect of EFT on alcohol addiction in a small village in India; [6] a comparison of EFT using the standard tapping points with a version using tapping on other body locations; a study of the effect of EFT on fears of public speaking, using a virtual reality programme to test this.

The study by Joaquin Andrade MD and colleagues from Uraguay.

Preliminary data has been reported (Andrade & Feinstein, 2001), of a variety of randomised double-blind pilot studies, involving more than 29000 patients, conducted at 11 centres in South America during a 14-year period. In one of these, approximately 5000 patients, diagnosed as suffering from an anxiety disorder, were randomly assigned to a group which received an energy tapping method and a control group which received cognitive behaviour therapy and/or medication. At the close of therapy, 90% of the tapping group were rated as improved, whilst 63% of the control group were rated as improved. 76% of the tapping group were rated as symptom free, whilst 51% of the control group were rated as symptom free. At one year follow-up, the patients in the tapping treatment were substantially less prone to relapse than those in the control group.

These findings are dramatic. As the authors comment:
“No reasonable clinician, regardless of school of practice, can disregard the clinical responses that tapping elicits in anxiety disorders (over 70% improvement in a large sample in 11 centers involving 36 therapists over 14 years).” [p 4]
However, these pilot studies were conducted for the purpose of internal validation of procedures and protocols for the clinical team:
“These were pilot studies, viewed as possible precursors for future research, but were not themselves designed with publication in mind. Specifically, not all the variables that need to be controlled in robust research were tracked, not all criteria were defined with rigorous precision, the record-keeping was relatively informal, and source data were not always maintained. Nevertheless, the studies all used randomised samples, control groups, and double blind assessment. The finding were so striking that the research team decided to make them more widely available.” [p 4]

There were some interesting findings regarding the effectiveness of tapping methods for different clinical groups. The best results of tapping methods were with various kinds of anxiety disorders. Also various other emotional problems responded well, including grief, guilt, anger, shame, jealousy, rejection, painful memories, loneliness, love pain, and procrastination. Good results were also obtained in relation to adjustment disorders, ADHD, impulse control disorders, and problems stemming from abuse or neglect. Responding slightly less well, but still better than with other methods, were OCD, generalised anxiety disorder, anxiety related to medical conditions, social phobias, and certain specific phobias. Energy interventions fared as well but no better than other methods in relation to mild to moderate reactive depression, substance abuse disorders, and eating disorders. Results that were inferior to those obtained with other methods were found in relation to major endogenous depression, personality disorders and dissociative disorders. No improvement was found using energy methods in relation to psychotic disorders, bipolar disorders, delirium, dementia, and chronic fatigue.

Brain scan images from this study, showing the results before and after energy tapping, can be found at www.innersource.net/energy_psych/epi_neuro_foundations.htm

Descriptions of a number of other pilot studies and work in progress researching energy psychology methods can be found at www.energypsych.org

Two studies on EFT by Swingle and colleagues.

One study looked at the effects of EFT treatment on road traffic victims suffering from PTSD. The subjects were taught EFT tapping in two sessions. Follow-up at three months showed significant positive changes in brain-waves and in self-reported symptoms of stress. This study (Swingle et al. 2001) was reported at a scientific meeting and has been submitted for publication.

In another study (Swingle, 2001), EFT was used as a treatment for children diagnosed with epilepsy. The children were given EFT every night by their parents each day when the parents suspected a seizure might occur. After two weeks of home EFT treatment, significant reductions in seizure frequency were reported, as well as improvement in EEG readings. This study has not yet been published.

Research on thought field therapy.

A number of studies have been published relating to Callahan’s thought field therapy (TFT).

Figley and Carbonell (1999) report a preliminary investigation, without a control group, into the clinical effectiveness of TFT, EMDR and two other new treatments for PTSD. They found that all the new therapies accelerated treatment for trauma in contrast to lengthy traditional therapies. Meaningful comparisons between the treatments could not be made with certainty, for methodological reasons, but TFT was the most rapid treatment.

Some papers have presented data on heart rate variability (HRV) as an outcome measure of TFT (Callahan, 2001b; 2001c; Pignotti & Steinberg, 2001), arguing that both very high and very low HRV are a sign of ill-health, and that TFT helps restore a healthy HRV. Whilst this seems an interesting area to explore further, the combination of a novel treatment process and a novel outcome measure tends to strain the credulity of readers and reviewers; moreover, there are methodological problems in these studies, such as a failure to control for the statistical tendency of extreme measures to regress to the mean (Kline, 2001; Herbert & Gaudiono, 2001).

Some preliminary data on changes in level of self-reported distress with 714 patients with a variety of psychological disorders are described by Sakai and colleagues (Sakai et al. 2001). The methodology of this study is criticised by Lohr (2001), but some of his arguments seem a little odd, based apparently on his perception of TFT and its rationale as implausible. He appears to argue that regardless of results, a study of the effectiveness of TFT is invalid because the efficacy of this treatment method has not been established: “Effectiveness is a valuable research tool, but only when there is prior efficacy research to support its validity in more restrictive controlled experiments.” [p 1230] He further argues that since there have been no controlled studies of TFT and since the claims for evidence of the existence of energy meridians are “unconvincing”, the report by Sakai and colleagues is “scientifically premature and beside the point” [p 1233] . Lohr’s argument that, without prior establishment of efficacy, there can be no meaning to a study of efficacy, seems puzzling. Speaking personally, if I hear that a new treatment gives rise to a statistically significant lessening of self-reported distress in a sample of 714 patients, then I would conclude that some positive effect is taking place, even if I am puzzled by the nature and rationale for the treatment, and even if there are as yet no methodologically sound demonstrations of its efficacy in comparison to a control group. A study of effectiveness surely implies efficacy, even if it is not itself a sound demonstration of efficacy (because the experimental conditions have not been adequately controlled) . Lohr’s complete dismissal of the study seems a little harsh, especially in view of the authors’ own comment in the abstract: “These … are preliminary data that call for controlled studies to examine validity, reliability, and maintenance of effects over time.” [p 1215].

Another report (Johnson et al. 2001) described the use of TFT with people suffering war trauma in remote villages in Kosovo; 105 patients were treated and self-reported complete relief was reported by 103 of these, and follow-up data revealed that these improvements had been sustained. This report was criticised by Rosner (2001), on the grounds that [a] only superficial information about the sample was provided, [b] diagnostic information was absent, [c] the self-report measure of distress was rather crude, [d] the description of TFT was rather short. However, the reviewer does note that “doing research in a postwar society is more than difficult” and that “it is only to be expected that methodological standards should be of lesser importance than in a review of laboratory research performed in safety in a rich country.” [p 1241-1242]. By contrast, Hartung and Galvin (2003) comment: “Scientists can criticise this study’s lack of randomisation of subjects, use of nonstandardised measures, failure to account for competing hypotheses, and the like. Practicing psychotherapists, on the other hand, … will more likely feel exhilarated when reading about this work. A report of 98% recovery from trauma, even if informal, is likely to encourage a clinician who is dedicated to alleviating the suffering of trauma victims.” [p 60]

Two studies (Callahan, 1987; 2001; Leonoff, 1996) have reported the results of radio phone-in programmes, where callers were treated over the phone for various problems, such as phobias, anxieties, addictions, guilt and marital problems. Callahan reported a success rate of 97% and Leonoff reported 100%. Whilst many questions can be raised regarding the reliability and accuracy of the data, these studies may still have some merit. As Hartung and Galvin (2003) comment, the clinicians deserve some credit for having the courage to expose their method so publicly: “After all, it might have turned out the other way: ninety per cent of the callers could have announced to thousands of listeners that they did not feel any better and that TFT is a hoax.” [p 61].

Darby (2001) conducted a study of TFT with twenty people with severe needle phobias that prevented them getting appropriate medical treatment. They were treated with just one hour of TFT. Statistically significant improvements were shown at one month follow-up. [Reported in Hartung & Galvin, 2003]

Schoninger (2001) treated with TFT 48 people with public speaking anxiety. Various questionnaire measures were used, as well as the SUDs, relating to actual (in vivo) public speaking exercises. Substantial lowering of anxiety was revealed following treatment. [Reported in Hartung & Galvin 2003]

One study by Carbonell and colleagues conducted a randomised double-blind study, comparing TFT with a placebo treatment in which the subjects tapped points not used in true TFT. The subjects in the true TFT condition showed significantly greater improvement than the placebo group. This is not yet published in full, but a summary is available at www.tftrx.com/ref_articles/6heights.html

Research on the validity of muscle testing as a means of energy checks.

Although muscle testing inherently contains subjective elements and may be open to a variety of influences, including suggestion, there are quite a number of studies providing support for its essential validity. Monti and colleagues (1999) used computerised dynamometer to demonstrate that, in a group of 89 subjects, there were highly significant differences in muscle strength according to whether the person made a semantically congruent (i.e. true) statement as opposed to an incongruent statement. Two studies demonstrated significant interexaminer reliability for muscle testing (Caruso and Leisman, 2000; Lawson and Calderon, 1997). Several studies have shown differences in the electrical activity of muscles which test weak as opposed to those which test strong, and that this cannot be attributed simply to fatigue (e.g. Leisman et al 1989; Leisman, 1995; Perot et al. 1991). Schmitt and Leisman (1998) found a high degree of correlation between muscle testing for allergies and the presence of antibodies (serum immunoglobulins) for foods identified as allergenic by this procedure. Nevertheless, muscle testing should clearly only be used as a guide rather than a foolproof technique.

Research relating to meridians and subtle energy.

Acupuncture, from which energy psychology methods is partly derived, has been extensively studied (Stux & Pomeranx, 1995) and is widely accepted as a useful and effective treatment for many conditions – approved, for example, by the US National Institute of Health, who list more than a hundred conditions that may be helped with acupuncture (NIH 1997).

The specific points on the skin that are stimulated during acupressure and energy tapping show differences in electrical resistance compared to other points (Becker, 1990; Bergsmann & Woolley-Hart, 1973; Cho, 1998; Cho & Chung, 1994; Liboff, 1997; Syldona & Rein, 1999) – and the meridian lines which connect the acupressure points have a different electrical resistance compared to other parts of the skin . Various studies, using brain scanning techniques, have shown that changes in function in various parts of the brain are associated with stimulation of specific acupressure points (Cho, 1998; Darras, J.C. 1993; Hui, K.S., 2000; Omura, 1989; 1990). Stimulation of the acupressure points provokes release of opioid peptides (Swack, 2001).

Further evidence for the existence of the meridians was demonstrated by the French researcher, Pierre de Vernejoul, who injected radioactive isotopes into the acupoints and found that the movement of the isotopes corresponded to the meridians; there was no significant flow when the isotopes were injected at other randomly chosen points (de Vernejoul, P. 1985) – although some have suggested that de Vernejoul was actually detecting the lymphatic system rather than the meridians (Stux & Pomeranx 1995). A Russian scientist, Vladimir Zagriadskii, found that soft laser light was conducted along pathways corresponding to the meridians; concluding that the meridians are superconductors, he constructed a sensitive electrical device to detect and optimise the activity within the meridians and this was then used successfully to sustain the health of cosmonauts to the Mir Space Station (Narvaez et al. 2002). Support for the existence of the chakra system is provided by Pert (2000), who reports finding high concentrations of neuropeptides at the sites of the first six of the seven main chakras.

Evidence that body tissues polarise and interconnect through subtle bioelectric currents is provided by radiologist Bjorn Nordenstrom (1983), whilst research suggesting a bodily energy system responsible for the organisation and healing of the body is reported by Becker and Selden (1985). Similarly, the writings of biologist, Rupert Sheldrake (1985; 1988; 1999), present much evidence for the existence of an organising morphogenetic field, carrying a blueprint for the body, but also capable of learning and of transmitting information down the generations. This idea of an organising bioelectric field – or ‘L-field’ - was also explored in earlier research by Burr (1972), who concludes:
“Until modern instruments revealed the existence of the controlling L-fields, biologists were at a loss to explain how our bodies ‘kept in shape’ through ceaseless metabolism and changes of material. Now the mystery has been solved, the electro-dynamic field of the body serves as a matrix, which preserves the ‘shape’ or arrangement of any material poured into it, however often the material be changed.” [p 13].

The whole area of research on biological energy, particularly the photon emissions of biological systems and their regulatory role, is discussed extensively by Marco Bischof (1985) – unfortunately not yet available in English .

The detection and measurement of the subtle energy fields of the body are discussed in depth by Stanford physicist, William Tiller (Tiller, 1997). These energies seem to have some similarity with conventional magnetic fields, but in other ways appear different. For example, Dr. Justa Smith of Rosary Hill College in New York, found that both conventional high intensity magnetic fields and the subtle magnetic fields of healers consistently accelerated the activity of enzymes – but no significant magnetic activity could be detected around the healers’ hands using a standard magnetometer (reported in Gerber, 2000, p 326).

References

Andrade, J. & Feinstein, D. 2001. Energy psychology. Theory, indications, evidence. Available from: www.innersource.net. A report is also available at www.energypsych.org

Becker, R.O. 1990. Cross Currents. Plenum. New York.

Becker, R.O., & Selden, G. 1985. The Body Electric. Morrow. New York.

Bergsman, O., & Woolley-Hart, A. 1973. Differences in electrical skin conductivity between acupuncture points and adjacent areas. American Journal of Acupuncture. 1. 27-32.

Bischof, M. 1995. Biophotonon das Licht in unseren Zellen [Biphotons – the Light in our Cells]. Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt.

Burr, H.S. 1972. Blueprint for Immortality. The Electric Patterns of Life. C.W. Daniel. Saffron Walden, Essex.

Callahan, R.J. 1987. Successful treatment of phobias and anxiety by telephone and radio. Collected Papers of the International College of Applied Kinesiology. Shawnee Mission. KS.

Callahan, R.J. (with Trubo, R.) 2001. Tapping the Healer Within. Contemporary Books. Chicago.

Callahan, R.J. 2001b The impact of thought field therapy on heart rate variability. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 [10] 1153-1170.

Callahan, R.J. 2001c Raising and lowering of heart rate variability. Some clinical findings of thought field therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57. [10] 1175-1186.

Caruso, B., & Leisman, G. 2000. A forced/displacement analysis of muscle testing. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 91. 683-692.

Cho, S., & Chung, S. 1994. The basal electrical skin resistance of acupuncture points in normal subjects. Yonsei Medical Journal. 35. 464-474.

Cho, Z.H. 1998. New findings of the correlation between acupoints and corresponding brain cortices using functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95. 2670-2673.

Darby, D. 2001. The efficacy of thought field therapy as a treatment modality for individuals diagnosed with blood-injection-injury phobia. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Walden University. Minneapolis, MN.

Darras, J.C. 1993. Nuclear medicine investigation of transmission of acupuncture information. Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society. 22-28.

De Vernejoul, P. 1985. Etudes des meridians d’acupuncture par les traceurs radioactifs. Bulletin de L’Academie Nationale de Medicine. 169 [7] 1071-1075.

Figley, C.R., & Carbonell, J.L. 1995. Active ingredients project: the systematic clinical demonstration of the most efficient treatments of PTSD. Florida State University Psychosocial Research Program and Clinical Laboratory. Reported in F.P. Gallo, 1999 Energy Psychology (p 18-25). New York. CRC Press.

Gerber, R. 2000. Vibrational Medicine for the 21st Century. Piatkus. London.

Hartung, J.G. & Galvin, M. D. 2003 Energy Psychology and EMDR. Combining Forces to Optimize Treatment. Norton. New York.

Herbert, J.D. & Gaudiano, B.A. 2001. The search for the holy grail: heart rate variability and thought field therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 [10] 1207-1214.

Hui, K.S. 2000. Acupuncture modulates the limbic system and subcortical gray structures of the human brain: evidence from MRI studies in normal subjects. Human Brain Mapping. 13. 13-25.

Johnson, C., Shala, M., Sejdijai, X., Odell, R., & Dabishevci 2001. Thought field therapy – soothing the bad moments of Kosovo. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 [10] 1237-1240.

Kline, J.P. 2001. Heart rate variability does not tap putative efficacy of thought field therapy. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57. [10] 1187-1192.

Lawson, A., & Calderon, L. 1997. Interexaminer agreement for applied kinesiology manual muscle testing. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 84. 539-546.

Lehrer, P.M., Sasoki, Y., & Saito, Y. 1999. Zazen and cardiac variability. Psychosomatic Medicine, 61. 812-821.

Leisman, G. 1995. Electromyographic effects of fatigue and task repetition on the validity of estimates of strong and weak muscles in applied kinesiology muscle testing procedures. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 80. 963-977.

Leisman, G., Shambaugh, P., & Ferentz, A. 1989. Somatosensory evoked potential changes during muscle testing. International Journal of Neuroscience. 45. 143-151.

Liboff, A.R. 1997. Bioelectrical fields and acupuncture. Journal Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 3. 577-587.

Lohr, J.M. 2001. Sakai et al. is not an adequate demonstration of TFT effectiveness. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57. [10] 1229-1236.

Monti, D., Sinnott, J., Marchese, M., Kunkel, E., & Greeson, J. Muscle test comparisons of congruent and incongruent self-referential statements. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 88. 1019-1028.

Narvaez, T., Rohsmann, P., & Stegenda, J. 2002. Evaluating the effects of energy psychology on acupuncture meridians using Prognos analysis. In W. Lammers & B. Kircher [Eds.] The Energy Odyssey. New Directions in Energy Psychology. DragonRising. Eastbourne.

NIH. 1997. Acupuncture NIH consensus statement online, 1997. Nov 3-5. 15 (5) 1-34

Nordenstrom, B. 1983. Biologically Closed Electric Circuits: Clinical, Experimental and Theoretical Evidence for an Additional Circulatory System. Nordic. Stockholm.

Omura, Y. 1990. Meridian-like networks of internal organs, corresponding to traditional Chinese 12 main meridians and their acupuncture points as detected by the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test Imaging Method. Search for corresponding internal organs of western medicine for each meridian – part 1.. Acupuncture and Electro-Therapeutics Research International Journal. 12. 53-70.

Perot, C., Meldener, R., & Gouble, F. 1991. Objective measurement of proprioceptive technique consequences on muscular maximal voluntary contraction during manual muscle testing. Agressologie. 32 [10] 471-474.

Pert, C. 1999. Molecules of Emotion. Simon & Schuster. New York.

Pignotti, M., & Steinberg, M. 2001. Heart rate variability as an outcome measure for thought field therapy in clinical practice. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 [10] 1193-1206.

Rosner, R. 2001. Between search and research: how to find your way around? Review of the article ‘Thought field therapy – soothing the bad moments of Kosovo’. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57. [10] 1241-1244

Sakai, C., Paperny, D., Mathews, M., Tanida, G., Boyd, G., Simons, A., Yamamoto, C., Man, C., & Nutter, L. 2001. Thought field therapy clinical applications: Utilization in a HMO in Behavioral Medicine and Behavioral Health Services. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 57 [10] 1215-1228.

Schmitt, W., & Leisman, G. 1998. Correlation of applied kinesiology muscle testing findings with serum immunoglobulin levels for food allergies. International Journal of Neuroscience. 96. 237-244.

Schoninger, B. 2001. TFT in the treatment of speaking anxiety. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Union Institute, Cincinnati, OH.

Sheldrake, R. 1985. A New Science of Life. The Hypothesis of Formative Causation. Blond and Briggs. London.

Sheldrake, R. 1988. The Presence of the Past: Morphic Resonance and the Habits of Nature. Collins. London.

Sheldrake, R. 1999. Dogs that know when their owners are coming home and other unexplained powers of animals. Hutchinson. London.

Sheldrake, R., McKenna, T., & Abraham, R. 1998. The Evolutionary Mind. Trialogue Press. Santa Cruz.

Stux, G., & Pomeranx, B. 1995. Basics of Acupuncture. 3rd Edition. Springer. New York.

Syldona, M., & Rein, G. 1999. The use of DC electrodermal potential measurements and healer’s felt sense to assess the energetic nature of Qi. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 5. 329-347.

Swack, J.A. 2001. The biochemistry of energy psychology. An immunologist’s perspective on physiological mechanisms underlying energy psychology treatments. Plenary speech at the 2001 Energy Psychology Conference. Available from www.jaswack.com

Swingle, P. 2001. Effects of the Emotional Freedom Technique (EFT) method on seizure frequency in children diagnosed with epilepsy. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology, Las Vegas, NV.

Swingle, P., Pulos, L., & Swingle, M. 2001. Effects of a meridian-based therapy, (EFT), on symptoms of PTSD in auto accident victims. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Comprehensive Energy Psychology, Las Vegas. NV.

Tiller, W.A. 1997. Science and Human Transformation. Subtle Energies, Intentionality and Consciousness. Pavior Publishing. Walnut Creek. CA.

Wells, S., Polglase, K., Andrews, H.B., Carrington, P., & Baker, A. H. 2003. Evaluation of a meridian-based intervention, Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT), for reducing specific phobias of small animals. Journal of Clinical Psychology. 59 (9) 943-966.

 
Gallo aptly observes, “Although caution is certainly indicated to advance and protect the integrity of any field, extremes of caution have been observed repeatedly when the established paradigm is ‘challenged’ by unexplainable anomalous facts.” [1999, p 46]

A distinction between ‘effectiveness’ and ‘efficacy’ is rather subtle, possibly bordering on spurious, since dictionary definitions equate the two meanings.

Becker (1990) comments:
 
“We found that these meridians had the electrical characteristics of transmission lines, while the nonmeridian skin did not. We concluded that the acupuncture system was really there, and that it most likely operated electrically.” [p 46]

Although Marco Bischof’s book Biophotons – The Light in our Cells is not yet published in English, there is a summary on his website. This includes the following:
“According to the biphoton theory … the biophoton light is stored in the cells of the organism – more precisely, in the DNA molecules of their nuclei – and a dynamic web of light constantly released and stored by the DNA may connect cell organelles, cells, tissues, and organs within the body and serve as the organism’s main communication network and as the principal regulating instance for all life processes. The process of morphogenesis, growth, differentiation and regeneration are also explained by the structuring and regulating activity of the coherent biophoton field. The holographic biophoton field of the brain and the nervous system, and maybe even that of the whole organism, may also be the basis of memory and other phenomena of consciousness, as postulated by neurophysiologist Karl Pribram and others. The consciousness-like coherence properties of the biophoton field are closely related to its base in the properties of the physical vacuum and indicate its possible role as an interface to the non-physical realms of mind, psyche and consciousness.”
[www.transpersonal-de/mbischof/englisch/webbookend.htm].